Gender Bias in the Perspective of Patriarchy Theory, Islamic Jurisprudence and Gender Equality in Indonesia
The issue of gender bias is a sensitive and enduring matter that can lead to undesirable consequences and spark movements within a community to advocate for change. This research aims to analyze the root causes of gender bias from the perspective of Patriarchy Theory, Islamic Jurisprudence as theological legitimization and Gender Equality. The research methodology uses library research and content analysis as the data analysis technique. The research findings identify five gender biases that remain subjects of controversy to this day: (1) marginalization; (2) subordination; (3) stereotypes; (4) double or multiple burdens, and (5) violence manifested in physical and sexual conditions experienced by women. The Patriarchy Theory places men above women regardless of circumstances, while Gender Equality advocates for equal positions and access to rights for both men and women across all aspects of life. On the other hand, Islamic Jurisprudence views the existence of men and women as complementary to one another. No party is considered superior or inferior. Gender bias is an ever-present issue that demands ongoing attention and efforts to address it. Understanding it through the lenses of different perspectives can shed light on the complexities of the problem and pave the way for a more equitable and just society.